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Determinants of growth and height[ edit ] The median 50th percentile growth curves for male and females 0—20 years in the United States. The study of height is known as auxology. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations.
Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences among populations. Average height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness standard of living and quality of life of populations.
Nations that consume more protein in the form of meat, dairyeggsand fish tend to be taller, while those that attain more protein from cereals tend to be shorter. Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations.
The smooth 50th percentile male and female growth curves illustrated above are aggregate values from thousands of individuals sampled at ages from birth to age In reality, a single individual's growth curve shows large upward and downward spikes, partly due to actual differences in growth velocity, and partly due to small measurement errors.
For example, a typical measurement error of plus or minus 0. Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length with the child on his or her backused in measuring infants and toddlers and standing height typically measured from age 2 onwards.
Sir Francis Galton 's data showing the relationship between offspring height individuals as a function of mean parent height sets of parents. The correlation was 0. Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors.
A child's height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the meantherefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves.
Genetic potential and a number of hormones, minus illness, is a basic determinant for height.
Other factors include the genetic response to external factors such as diet, exercise, environment, and life circumstances. Humans grow fastest other than in the womb as infants and toddlersrapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum at around 11—12 years for female, and 13—14 years for malefollowed by a steady decline to zero.
On average, female growth speed trails off to zero at about 15 or 16 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 18— These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition or even severe child neglect have the greatest effect.
Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical period and pregnancyhas a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions.
Thus, there is a cumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.
The age of the mother also has some influence on her child's height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age, though these early studies suggest that trend is due to various socio-economic situations that select certain demographics as being more likely to have a first birth early in the mother's life.
Nature versus nurture[ edit ] The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. A genome-wide association GWA study of more thanindividuals has identified hundreds of genetic variants in at least loci associated with adult human height.
This gives insights into the biological mechanisms underlying how these genetic variants affect overall height.
As an example, 4 of the 7 loci identified for intracranial volume had previously been discovered for human height. In the early s, when Bogin first visited Guatemalahe observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil Warduring which up to a million Guatemalans fled to the United States.
He discovered that Maya refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts.
Dinka Ruweng males investigated by Roberts in —54 were on average As the study points out, Nilotic people "may attain greater height if privileged with favourable environmental conditions during early childhood and adolescence, allowing full expression of the genetic material.
The tallest living married couple are ex-basketball players Yao Ming and Ye Li both of China who measure They married in ShanghaiChina, on 6 August Process of growth[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.Portrait painting can be considered as public or private art.
In ancient Mediterranean civilizations, like those of Egypt, Greece and Rome, and Byzantium, portraiture was mainly a public art form, or a type of funerary art for Gods, Emperors, Kings, and Popes.
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