An analysis of the process of cloning and the history of genetic engineering

Various genetic discoveries have been essential in the development of genetic engineering. Genetic inheritance was first discovered by Gregor Mendel in following experiments crossing peas. Although largely ignored for 34 years he provided the first evidence of hereditary segregation and independent assortment.

An analysis of the process of cloning and the history of genetic engineering

Maybe the most interesting of all.

Cell Biology

My first thought after reading your comment was: S2 illustrates the same graph by official regions such as Piedmont, Veneto, etc.

And what do we see?

An analysis of the process of cloning and the history of genetic engineering

Would it be only Liguria, we could think of Genoese mariner and trade relations maybe but Piedmont? I can find no better explanation than an ancient Ligurian link.

An analysis of the process of cloning and the history of genetic engineering

Austosomal analysis also give them strong Iberian component. And Corsican does seem to retain a few pre-Indo-European words in its lexicon.

Corsicans are one of the number one populations whose overall autosomal genetic results I have been looking forward to seeing for years for the same reasons, but somehow no population geneticist seems to be interested in them, at least not as much as you and me.

But, it does suggest to me that it may be that in the Copper Age the western Mediterranean was dominated by a Sardinian-like population, which later was displaced and assimilated by newcomers.

The Berbers, in turn, are indigeneous Saharan people who were traditionally herders, whose indigeneous languages are one of the main language families within the Afro-Asiatic language family. While their lifestyle is similar to that of Arabic herders, their indigeneous language spoken until sometime after Arabic was introduced in the 8th century and genetics are very distinct.

They show considerable genetic continuity to the hunter-gatherers of North Africa ca. An exchange across the Strait of Gibraltar or by sea in the Western Mediterranean would seem to be a more likely source for this component than a North African coastal route given 1 the existence of some other Y-DNA e.

Given the lack of Basque-like languages in North Africa often seen in cases of genetic ancestry contributions in connection with conquest and superstate ruleand the lack of much Y-DNA haplogroup G or haplogroup R1b in Mozabites, my guess would be that copper age bride exchange in connection with trade across the Straight of Gibraltar would be a most likely source of the Sardinian-like genetic component seen in the Mozabites.

Even if there was such an error in the sampling process, why in Piedmont and Liguria and not in the even more industrial and immigrated region of Lombardia, correctly mentioned in your article Milanas the epicenter of industrial development and immigration or also Emilia-Romagna and Veneto?

There should not be this kind of distinction, yet there is. Neither in the prehistorical one admittedly except Cardium Pottery Neolithic possibly but that is a blurrier zone. So by a process of elimination, the Corsican element must look like Cypriot or something?! Here are her Dodecad K12B results:Now, let's have a look at the important events in the history of genetic engineering in agriculture.

Using Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics, scientists in Europe developed a process termed as "classic selection", which was a type of cross breeding, to improve the characteristics of plant species. Cloning is a process by which identical copies of an organism are made. The copy, or clone, possesses exactly the same genetic material as the original organism.

Cloning can occur naturally through asexual reproduction, wherein a single organism creates a genetically identical copy of itself. Genetic Engineering Using recombinant DNA technology to modify an organism’s DNA to achieve desirable traits is called genetic engineering.

Addition of foreign DNA in the form of recombinant DNA vectors that are generated by molecular cloning is the most common method of genetic engineering. Genetic Engineering Using recombinant DNA technology to modify an organism’s DNA to achieve desirable traits is called genetic engineering.

Addition of foreign DNA in the form of recombinant DNA vectors that are generated by molecular cloning is the most common method of genetic engineering. The primary application of genetic engineering to wild species involves cloning. This technology could be applied to either extinct or endangered species; for example, there have been plans to clone the extinct thylacine and the woolly mammoth (5).

Mammalian cloning, through this nuclear transfer process, has resulted in the birth of hundreds of organisms to date. However, significantly more nuclear transfer generated embryos fail during pregnancy than would fail in sexual reproduction, and a substantial majority of cloned animals who have survived to birth have had some significant birth defect.

History of genetic engineering - Wikipedia