Overview Background Epistaxis is a common problem in the emergency department ED. Although it usually is relatively benign, it can produce serious, life-threatening situations. Epistaxis that has resolved still requires management to prevent rebleeding. Posterior epistaxis may present in ways that suggest a more inferiorly located site of bleeding from the aerodigestive tract eg, hemoptysis, melena, anemia, or just nausea.
To begin with, distinct, polar-opposite ends of the organism are chosen. By definition, each pair of opposite points defines an axis. The terms "intermediate", "ipsilateral", "contralateral", Posterior enthesis, and "deep", while indicating directions, are relative terms and thus do not properly define fixed anatomical axes.
Also, while the "rostrocaudal" and anteroposterior directionality are equivalent in a significant portion of the human body, they are different directions in other parts of the body. Anatomical axes in orthograde bipedal vertebrates Spheroid or near-spheroid organs such as testes may be measured by "long" and "short" axis.
For example, in the anatomical position the most superior part of the human body is the head, and the most inferior is the feet. Anterior and posterior[ edit ] "anterior" redirects here.
For posterior, see anterior disambiguation. Anterior refers to what is in front from Latin ante, meaning "before" and posterior, what is to the back of the subject from Latin post, meaning "after".
To describe the sides of the knees touching each other would be "right medial" and "left medial".
The terms "left" and "right" are sometimes used, or their Latin alternatives Latin: However, as left and right sides are mirror imagesusing these words is somewhat confusing, as structures are duplicated on both Posterior enthesis.
For example, it is very confusing to say the dorsal fin of a dolphin is "right of" the left pectoral finbut is "left of" the right eyebut much easier and clearer to say "the dorsal fin is medial to the pectoral fins".
For example, the right arm and leg are represented by the left, i. For example, the left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg. For example, unilateral paresis is hemiparesis. Proximal and distal[ edit ] "Proximal" and "distal" redirect here.
|Disorders of the Ankle and Foot: Posterior | Radiology Key||Achilles enthesitis as an unrecognised cause of heel pain in the seronegative spondyloarothpathies and psoriatic arthritis Introduction The Achilles enthesis takes its name from the ill fated Greek hero of the same name.|
|Enthesitis - Wikipedia||It is an important problem that deserves careful attention [1,2]. This page explains the link between enthesitis and ankle and foot disease.|
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|Introduction||The localization of the inflammation and the description of the imaging findings have been subjects of an increasing number of studies. In the earliest imaging study on this subject, 31 consecutive SpA patients 15 ReA, 12 AS, 4 psoriatic arthritis [PsA] were studied for the presence of enthesitis in the lower extremities, independently by clinical examination and by high-resolution sonography.|
|Recognition of Achilles enthesitis||This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament OPLL with enthesis, the site where the posterior longitudinal ligament PLL attaches to the vertebral body, by multi-detector CT reconstruction images.|
For the dental terms, see Glossary of dentistry. These terms are particularly useful when describing appendages such as finstentacleslimbs or indeed any structure that extends that can potentially move separately from the main body.
Although the direction indicated by "proximal" and "distal" is always respectively towards or away from the point of attachment, a given structure can be either proximal or distal in relation to another point of reference.
Thus the elbow is distal to a wound on the upper arm, but proximal to a wound on the lower arm. Specifically as referring to the atomic loci of molecules from the overall moiety of a given compound. Loosely speaking, they distinguish near and far, inside and out, or even organs of vital importance such as heart and lungs, from peripheral organs such as fingers, that undoubtedly may be important, but which it may not be life-threatening to dispense with.
Examples of the application of the terms are the distinction between central- and peripheral nervous systemsand between peripheral blood vessels and the central circulatory organs, such as the heart and major vessels. The terms also can apply to large and complex molecules such as proteins, where central amino acid residues are protected from antibodies or the like, but peripheral residues are important in docking and other interactions.
Other examples include Central and peripheral circadian clocks,  and central versus peripheral vision. Deep from Old English refers to something further away from the surface of the organism. For example, the external oblique muscle of the abdomen is deep to the skin. For example, in skin the epidermis is superficial to the subcutis.
Dorsal and ventral[ edit ] These two terms, used in anatomy and embryologyrefer to back dorsal and front or belly ventral of an organism.
If talking about the skull, the dorsal side is the top. Cranial and caudal[ edit ] In the human skull the terms rostral and caudal are adapted to the curved neuraxis of Hominidae Specific terms exist to describe how close or far something is to the head or tail of an animal.
To describe how close to the head of an animal something is, three distinct terms are used: These terms are generally preferred in veterinary medicine and not used as often in human medicine. The term "rostral" is rarely used in human anatomy, apart from embryology, and refers more to the front of the face than the superior aspect of the organism.
Similarly, the term "caudal" is only occasionally used in human anatomy. Thus the "rostrocaudal axis" refers to a C shape see image. Other terms and special cases[ edit ] Anatomical landmarks[ edit ] The location of anatomical structures can also be described with relation to different anatomical landmarks.
Structures may be described as being at the level of a specific spinal vertebradepending on the section of the vertebral column the structure is at. The position is often abbreviated.Feb 17, · Posterior packing is very uncomfortable and may necessitate procedural sedation.
An anterior nasal pack is always required on the side of a posterior pack, and a contralateral nasal pack is strongly encouraged to maintain the septum midline.
Enthesitis is inflammation of the entheses, the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone. It is also called enthesopathy, or any pathologic condition involving the entheses. The entheses are any point of attachment of skeletal muscles to the bone, where recurring stress or inflammatory autoimmune disease can cause inflammation or occasionally fibrosis and barnweddingvt.comesDB: The enthesis is an organ that dissipates mechanical stress over a wide area, including the adjacent bone and soft tissues; consequently, the immunopathology associated with enthesitis is similarly distributed over a wide area.
Jul 13, · This suggests that, within the inferior margin of the femoral enthesis, the anterior region may experience a greater strain concentration than the posterior region, at least in the knee position examined herein (15 ° of knee flexion).
Enthesitis and uveitis. The micro-enthesis theory of AAU now offers an novel explanation for this phenomenon, that is, the immune system prevents inflammatory reactions at sites of microscopic damage. Finally one of the drugs used to treat AAU, atropine, temporarily paralyses the small muscles of the eye.
This may in part be working by. Background/Purpose: Ultrasound imaging is highlighting the prominent role of tendinitis in systemic rheumatic disease.
Because of challenging anatomy, limited literature exists on the sonographic appearance of the posterior tibialis (PTT) and the peroneus brevis (PBT) tendon entheses. Our objectives were to determine the anatomic features and best imaging techniques of normal PTT and PBT using.