December 10, by Jonathan Bechtel 81 Comments The multivitamin has come under attack!
Subscribe Table of contents Introduction Smoking in the midth century was ubiquitous in Australia, as in other Western countries. Inmore than three out of every four men and one in every four women were regular smokers.
First was the advent of television in the late s, which brought an avalanche of advertisements for cigarettes into the lounge rooms of Australian families, 17 and distracted from concerns about cancer with images of European sophistication, American-style affluence and Australian sunshine and fun that resonated with the optimism and aspirations of a generation wanting to build a new life after two long decades of war and Depression.
A new breed of advertising men in the United States, Britain and Australia helped tobacco companies to side-step the health issue with appeals to emotion combined with reassuring, if vague allusions to filters and reductions in 'tar'.
They attempted with only moderate success to enlist doctors to warn people about the dangers of smoking. Health educators and psychologists stepped in to work out how best to discourage children from experimenting with cigarettes, and to try to help smokers to shake off the grip of their tobacco habits.
Much was learnt about smoking as an addiction and about the process of smoking cessation. Brochures were produced 20 and courses were run by bodies such as the state Cancer Councils and the Seventh Day Adventist Church.
However, giving up smoking during the s was seen in much the same category as becoming a vegetarian or Traditional education system v s cbcs system tee-totaller, and little dent was made in smoking rates in the face of the powerful commercial forces that continued to promote cigarettes.
Medical groups continued to press governments to restrict the promotion of tobacco products, and to discourage their use on a wider scale. A discreet faint gold-lettered warning about smoking being a health hazard appeared on cigarette packs inand direct cigarette advertisements were banished from television in the mids.
However, the cultural dominance of tobacco was barely disturbed.
Budgets for TV shifted from advertising to sponsorship of sport, which continued to allow tobacco products to be promoted through television, and may have entrenched smoking even more deeply into the Australian psyche.
Advertisements for cigarette products—forced to move to the print media—could then be tailored specifically to the readership of particular newspapers and magazines, including those intended for young women.
Advertisements on billboards and outside shops signalled that tobacco was still a prominent part of every-day life.
Smoking was allowed in all but the most fire-prone public buildings and several tobacco company executives received knighthoods for their services to the business community. It wasn't until the early s, however, that governments and cancer councils seriously began to challenge the power of the tobacco companies through the mass media and in popular culture.
Public support for the 'Quit' initiative emboldened governments to seriously consider, and to start to enact recommendations from international health agencies to ban all forms of promotion of tobacco products, 25 to mandate prominent health warnings, 26 and to raise taxes on tobacco products with the dual objectives of making smoking less affordable and generating additional funds for expanded social marketing efforts and to replace tobacco sponsorship of sport.
Unknown Tobacco control hits its stride Quit campaigns were underway in all states and territories by the late s, sharing advertising materials and running a national phone line to advise and support people quitting smoking. Health education in schools remained a major theme but was complemented with more vigorous efforts to stop retailers from selling cigarettes to children—refer Chapter 5.
During the late s and early s, concerns about the health effects of exposure to other people's smoking 28 —see Chapter 4 —led to the progressive restriction of smoking in more and more workplaces.
Smoking rates resumed their downward trend. Taxes on large packets of cigarettes increased substantially inwith further increases associated with implementation of Australia's Goods and Services Tax between June and February —see Chapter Governments continued to chip away at remaining forms of promotion, with all states outlawing advertising of products at point of sale in the early s and then, towards the end of the decade, outlawing the display of products altogether—see Chapter 11, Section Smoking cessation aids were listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme inand and a variety of phone, internet and SMS programs have since been put in place across the country to support and encourage smokers in their quit attempts—see Chapter 7.
These programs are soundly based on knowledge about addiction, the process of smoking cessation and the predictors of success in quitting that has continued to grow since the s.
However, the addictive properties of nicotine and the degree to which smoking is entrenched in smokers' lives continues to result in very high rates of relapse. Tobacco control as a legal, economic and social justice issue During the s smoking came to be seen not just as a health issue, but also as a matter of consumer rights: The understanding that secondhand smoke is dangerous led courts and various tribunals concerned with workers' health and safety to award compensation for sickness arising from exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace, which sent a powerful signal to governments and the private sector about the need to protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke—see Chapter The courts also demonstrated the power of litigation by upholding laws designed to restrict the promotion of tobacco products and, potentially, of securing resources to fund tobacco control activity.
The need for legal expertise in ensuring that law more generally works in the interests of public health is now well recognised. Smoking is also now well understood in Australia as an economic issue—see Chapter 17 — with the health care 42 and other economic costs associated with tobacco use 43 justifying a significant investment in the treatment of smoking and anti-smoking campaigns 44,45 both to reduce short-run costs 46 and as part of efforts to contain future costs in the public health system.
For several decades, smoking rates have been substantially higher among those who are educationally and socially disadvantaged—see Chapter 9. Reducing smoking and the attendant health costs, financial stress and intergenerational poverty associated with spending on tobacco products has become a major social justice issue, particularly among Australia's Indigenous population—see Chapter 8 — and among those with living with mental illness or problems with drug and alcohol use.
Tobacco use among the homeless, among those in correctional facilities and among others facing multiple and severe disadvantage is particularly high, and these groups have also been identified as priorities.
Understanding what has 'worked' In the 50 years betweenwhen the Royal College of Physicians released its landmark report on the hazards of smoking, 10 and when this fourth edition of Facts and Issues is going on-line, the prevalence of smoking has more than halved—see Chapter 1, Section 1.
In line with the findings of research throughout the rest of the world, 51 studies measuring short-run effects have been able to attribute reductions in smoking prevalence in Australia to increasing taxes, 52,53 greater expenditure on social marketing campaigns 54,55,53 and smokefree policies.
As illustrated in US Surgeon General's reports which have exhaustively reviewed the evidence about the effectiveness of tobacco control over the past five decades, 60,61 smoking is a multi-factorial problem—a tug-of-war between the forces which promote and facilitate the use of tobacco products and the forces which discourage and inhibit its use; a tug-of-war played out at the individual, household and community levels as well as in the wider culture.CBCS Medical Billing and Coding is an ideal program for students new to this important position in the healthcare field.
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